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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  December 6, 2013 10:00pm-12:01am EST

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nurse and then get worked on by the doctor and no discussion at all. this is not ase substitute to going to your physician and being personally treated. heller cho i understand. if you things. you put so many things out on the table, it is hard to get it republican duncan who called for a nuclear strike against iran here two days ago. truey, moving on, isn't it that cancer has only been out there that we know of for the 300 years? and don't we need the sun to make vitamin d for our bodies? guest: first of all, cancer has been around for a very long time . a book was published not long ago called "the cancer and the author, george johnson, talks about the
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evidence that dinosaurs had cancer. but cancer is found in many kinds of animals. it is found in the remains of egyptians varied -- buried several thousand years ago. it is a phenomenon of life, specially human life. there is a variety of factors that can increase the risk of any single individual developing cancer. by far the greatest in our society is use of tobacco. but obesity, lack of exercise, alcohol use, exposure to sunlight are among some of the causes. is not as -- asbestos longer use but is another cause. yes marco we need vitamin d. it there are other ways to get vitamin d. modest exposure to sunlight is very different than the kinds of
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anosures that lead to ordinance numbers of mutations as a result of uv exposures. most people get plenty of vitamin d. deficiencies in vitamin d can't .e repaired i taking it orally host: how important is it to listen to your body? early detection and early wariness in terms of riveting or allowing you to live with cancer and it being treated, regardless of the type of cancer? cannotunfortunately, we answer the question. the tools for detecting cancers before symptoms arrive vary dramatically from one cancer to another. and if you are among listeners of something we have not talked much about microsurgery -- about, surgery, that is very
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important to keep in mind. the point of early diagnosis is to identify life-threatening cancers before their life- threatening and then remove them in their entirety. that is still the best approach we have to cure the cancer. oft and intense radiotherapy localized tumors. for some cancers we do have tests that have been shown to save lives. that is particularly true of something we have not mentioned , which islonoscopies an alternative to frequent detecting of feces for blood. but these are both methods that are proven to save lives by detecting colorectal cancers at an early stage when they can be cured by surgery. you want to have the prescribed testing, either for blood and
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so that by colonoscopy a tumor can be detected, even before becomes cancers or at an early stage of cancerous development. we know from the rapidly declining mortality rate of: cancer that this is a very effective way to approach that disease. host: dr. harold varmus is the director of the national cancer nih.tute, part of the thank you very much for sharing your expertise with our c-span audience. guest: my pleasure. host: we are going to continue for a few minutes just with your phone calls and we want to hear from you on the issue of cancer or medical research at nih. in a few minutes, we will turn our attention to mental health issues. judy is joining us from gerard, pennsylvania. caller: good morning. i wanted to know if the people
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are aware of the john kansas cancer research foundation in pennsylvania. it deals with using radiofrequency waves to do strike cancer cells that are targeted by nanoparticles. curley at the m.d. anderson cancer institute is the lead researcher on the project. host: what are some of the conclusions or findings so far? caller: they are at the stage of going to large animal treatment now. they have 100% success in treating pancreatic and liver cancer. host: thank you. manned -- mary from florida, good morning. caller: hello? ahead with your comments. we can hear you. caller: my son had a rare , and at age 10 in his
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first brain tumor took place. he had excellent care at children's hospital in boston. but the disease progressed until he was in his 20's and a researcher at the national cancer institute found out about his illness. so we were all tested at nih to look for a family component. the disease produces tumors. we all have two tumor suppressor genes and both were in activated. through the efforts of research that the national cancer institute did, they located the very place where the tumor lost its genes, chromosome number three. my son received treatment there for many years with surgeries
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and radiations and at the final , the cancerillness within experimental drug which prolonged his life three more years. unfortunately he did die at age 42 a largem 10 to part of his life was wonderful his brain was intact and his intellect was fine. we had a wonderful man and mainly because of the help of the nih. i cannot say enough of them. host: thank you for your call and for sharing your story with the spirit we are rejoined by another expert at nih. dr. thomas insel is the director of national institute of mental health. thank you for being with us here on c-span. why such a disparity between the treatment of medical illnesses and mental health issues?
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time it has long been difficult for many people to understand that mental illnesses are brain disorders. very much like any other brain disorder or disorders of any other part of the body. the history of this goes back centuries. it has been difficult for many people to really understand that when a disorder affects the psyche, it affects the way we feel about who we are in the way we think it behaved, but it is actually based on something that is happening in the brain. it is a physical process that is driving this. we tend not to understand it that way. it has taken really about a decade or two of really getting the kind of science we needed to make that case and to understand the brain as being the basis of both normal and abnormal behavior. host: the president talking about the brain initiative, calling this the next major
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american project -- what is he talking about? guest: to put that into context, he was thinking about the last two great american projects in science. one was the apollo project to put a man on the moon. and then the human genome project. the next great american project is what he is calling the brain initiative. and that is an initiative that will involve several government agencies, among them nih and the defense advanced research project agency and the national science foundation as well as private partners to take our understanding of the brain and how it works and bring it up a notch. try to figure out a way to develop the tools to decode the language of the brain. we have gone a long way recently, but we knew -- need to go much further much faster to understand the basis of how the brain works and how it sometimes does not work so well so that you end up with a brain that
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gives you alzheimer's or parkinson's or any of those disorders that were mentioned earlier. those are disorders that if you are going to really be able to make the kind of progress we want, we have got to understand the fundamentals of the organ involved. we do not understand the brain as well as we understand the heart, kidney, or the liver. the association hopes to put the brain into the focus of current research so we can really up the understanding of this organ and be able to make a difference for people with brain disorders. host: with regard to alter them are specifically, is that because people are living longer and more prone to alzheimer's and dementia later in life or are there other factors? guest: a good part of the concern about alzheimer's is the change in demographics. it is becoming a more common problem. something that more than 5 million americans have been
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affected, and $200 million less going into this. we are concerned about how to do better. doing better here is not that different from what you heard from my colleagues. a lot of it is trying to figure out how to detect earlier. here is one of the real challenges as we think about tose disorders, from autism alzheimer's and anything in between, we have been diagnosing them based on behavioral change, based on symptoms, changes in the way people think and behave. one of the great insights of the last decade or so in these brain s to realize behaviors are the last thing to happen with brain disorders. the brain preserves function for a long time. you do not develop the first signs of parkinson's disease until you have lost about 80% of your dopamine cells.
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with alzheimer's, we know the brain has been effective for at least a decade, maybe two. where we need to go is figure out a way to intervene much earlier in all of the disorders before the symptoms look of the behavioral symptoms emerge. approximately 1.5 billion dollars is the overall budget for the nih." stood $31 billion. what impact has sequestration had on your research? guest: i think we are down to .bout $1.4 billion it means that we are not able to fund a number of new grants. we would like to. we always stay around 500 new grants per year. grants per year. we fell to 512 this year. 560e quite frank, i think
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is way below where we need to be. if you look at the cost of these disorders for the nation, and some of that is the emotional cost to families, but even just the economic origins that these disorders in tail, you have to ask the question -- what should we be spending in r&d? it certainly should be much more than $1.4 billion. host: david joining us from eugene, oregon. caller: i know when the dsm 5 came out, you had a concern about the validity of dsm diagnoses. i wonder what you think about that. guest: i have thought about it quite a bit. we have been trying to figure out how to do better on the diagnostic side of mental illness. it is clear that as long as we base our diagnoses on behavior, as i just said, we are getting there late. the question is how to bring biology and a number of other
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kinds of measures to the table so that we can identify these disorders much earlier and began to intervene much earlier with much better outcomes. if you listened to my colleagues who have been on the show this morning, it is really interesting how, across-the- board, whether talking about infectious diseases, cancer, we do not talk about heart disease but it is even more true there -- the lesson we learned in medicine is the earlier we can intervene, the better the outcomes. when you diagnose as dsm does simply by presenting symptoms, you are always getting there late. host: our guest is a graduate from boston university. walk us through your background. guest: it has been varied. i started off as an english major in college and went on to medical school. i have been trained in psychiatry. i did clinical research in psychiatry on obsessive- compulsive disorder here at the
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nih. that is really where i fell in love with science, being in an environment like this where i could explore whatever i could become passionate about. it was a fantastic opportunity. it actually got me out of clinical research and ultimately into doing more basic neuroscience . i spent 20 years looking at the doing thats -- research. and i came back to the nih. host: we have a call from missouri. good morning. caller: thank you for c-span. i finished two books by caroline leaf. i do not know whether she is a psychologist or psychiatrist. but her books are on thoughts and what enters the brain. i just find it really hard to stay with this problem because i have got a lot of problems with
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hate. and all of the information i see on television seems to be trytive information, and i to eliminate all of that. but it is almost impossible. all the wars. i mean, i am so happy that you have this program on this morning. i am going to hang up and listen to the program. thank you very much. host: thank you for the call. guest: by the way, i would like to make one remark. i am so delighted to have you here at nih. but i would not want your viewers to think that the nih leadership is all male and all pale and maybe even a little bit frail. we have a very diverse group of people here at the various institutes of nih. i want to make sure you come back in the future and have a chance to talk to some of the others as well. host: we are happy to do so and appreciate your hospitality this morning and the staff and the
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chance to tap into your expertise. we would be delighted to come back again. we have another 15 minutes. do not leave us. jeff is joining us from new york. caller: i have a question about schizophrenia and that maybe schizophrenia might be compared to telepathy, and i would be interested in the symptoms of schizophrenia. thank you. what is your story? why do you bring this up? caller because the mentioned thoughts and people with kids over in your hear voices -- people with schizophrenia hear voices. people with schizophrenia might naturally have that ability to hear voices. host: thanks for the call. guest: schizophrenia is one of
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the topics we are most focused on at the nih, what we call a serious mental illness. it is complicated and is probably many disorders that share key features. one of them involves hearing voices. we call those the sort of positive symptoms or the ones we know the most about when we think about this illness. people who have delusions and hallucinations. but there are other features as well. some of those have to do with a lack of motivation and a lack of ability to move forward in life. there is a third group of symptoms which we call the the cognitiveoms, deficits. those are problems with memory and problems of attention. sadly, we do not have good treatments for those latter two categories. we have treatments for hallucinations and delusions, medications at work quite well. but the other parts of this syndrome, the parts that are
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often even more disabling, we need to come up with much better treatments. that is part of why nih is so focused on developing both better diagnostics and better therapeutics for these kinds of illnesses. host: this tweet on the issue of mental health -- are there any other significant development being made in other countries? guest: it is a great question. recently, mental disorder research has become global. there is a lot of interest in global mental health, and that is not just from europe and australia. canada and increasingly in other parts of the world. the disorders we're talking about our global and not unique to the developed world. as a result, there have been some very interesting little-resource environments to try to figure out how to do better. so when we think about global mental health, we actually think about what is being done in
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places like rwanda or places in quitewhere resources are low. yet sometimes the outcomes are quite good. we have been using global mental health and not only to think about how we can be helpful to those with fewer resources but how we can learn from them, to figure out how we can do better in the united states. host: george from jacksonville, florida. florida but myin sister has a medical facility in new jersey. equipment used mostly for cardiac diagnosis. but she has recently begun using it also for brain scans. she has been able to detect early on the proteins lack buildup in the brain way before there are any noticeable symptoms in the patients. can you tell me more about this?
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great question. if these are brain disorders, we need to look at the organ of interest. that includes brain imaging like pet scans. increasingly we have been able to detect changes, for instance in people with early alzheimer's disease where you can see the changes in the brain well before you see cognitive decline. in other disorders it has not been quite so straightforward. so we are quite interested in being able to do the same thing for teenagers who may be at risk for psychosis. most of the mental disorders begin early in life before age 25. what we would really like to do is be able to identify brain changes much earlier than 25 when someone comes in with a psychotic illness. the hope is that we would use similar techniques as what we are using an alzheimer's. but this is still in the realm of research, not quite ready for
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prime time. host: would any of the cognitive or mental issues -- can you put in terms of statistics with the chances are if that does run in your family that you also can suffer a similar situation? depends on they disorder itself. this is where genetics has become so helpful. we used to mostly make these kinds of estimates based on family history. now we understand that we can do far better if we actually look at the and heritability component in the genes. that confer genes quite a risk from alzheimer's or parkinson's, but those are in the minority of people who have those disorders. for the mental disorders like autism and schizophrenia and bipolar, there is a component that is inherited. we do not have all of the genes that tell us where that is coming from. 128ave now just recently
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genetic hits in schizophrenia. two years ago we had almost none. this is a very fast-moving field. but i have to say that we're still looking at family history is one indication. in the case of schizophrenia, the recurrence rate, that is if someone else in your family has it, the risk for you goes from about 1% in the general ovulation to as much as 10%. in the case of autism, it has been higher. 2% up to as% to much as 15% or 20%. it is a substantial family risk. mental healthc is research at nih. our guest is dr. thomas insel. this is a tweet from a viewer -- i love it when c-span's "washington journal" has accomplished nonpolitical guests who are great at explaining their expertise and at talking to guests. guest: thank you. host: allen from virginia, good
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morning. i am very glad you're on tv this morning. i am a disabled veteran with traumatic brain energy -- injury and loss of cognitive function. one point is unequal treatment under the law. when i lost my disability insurance, we're limited to like two years whereas some of them as cancer or parkinson's or something like that, he goes on for the rest of their life. we are caught up -- cut off automatically at two years. i have a good psychiatrist. i have an neuropsychiatrist. i have a urologist. all of these guys. seen that these people work together as an integrated team even though they are working on the same bodily organ, our brain, the most complex organ in our body. guest: thanks for calling.
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those are both critical points. i wish we had the whole 30 minutes to cover both of them. then the focus on the latter point about the integration of care. you're absolutely right. i mean, one of the problems we have here is that we have disciplined smoke all of which are looking at problems from the at thisan that come with very different training, different language, different treatment approaches. imagine for a moment if we had two fields of medicine on the heart, one that studied arrhythmias and one that studied heart attacks, you would say that those are all the problems of cardiologists. yet, we have psychiatry and narrower june, almost as if you have two disciplines separated by a common organ -- you have psychiatry and narrower june. for people like yourself who are struggling with tbi and problems
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that have to do it conflicts changes in the brain, we need to bring all that together into a team they can really work well and bring the best tools we have appeared one of the best points we can make is that we do not actually have the treatments we need yet. one of the issues about two days rogue ram on the sequester -- on today's program on the sequester, we have to invest more and more and understand the basics so that we have bettered agnostic tests and better treatments. a long time ago, one of the great advocates of research on that ifade the comment you think research is expensive, tried disease. she recognized that this kind of work is an investment against the cost of disease. part of our concern when we face
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the sequestration is that we know there is a long cost and not investing now, the people , people with tbi complicated brain disorders that we do not understand well enough, you will not have the treatments in the future and your children will have the treatments in the future that we need to develop right now. david from phoenix, arizona. caller: thank you for taking my call. insel,ou, dr. in cell -- for being here today. i was a guinea pig for a pharmaceutical company. one of the medications went wrong and left me with cognitive issues. as havingagnosed me aids-related dementia. diligently to get
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my communication skills back and not be so nervous in front of people. and i think i want to go back to steve's initial question to you as to why there is not the is, youand why there know, problems in the community of not seeing this. to when peoplek would treat a mixed-race person that looks white but is half , and theyave hispanic would not treat them as different than white. host: thank you for the call. guest: there is a problem we struggle with, there is sort of system here. there has been a sense of disorders of the mind are not
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real disorders, that they are not actually brain disorders. to be fair, there is a lack of understanding about what we're dealing with. there is a failure for most of the public still to realize just how disabling and often fatal these disorders are. you have to remember that there are 38,000 suicides in the united states every year. of the time related to mental illness. that is more than the number of him aside by a factor of two. it is more than the number of traffic for tele these. it is more than the deaths of almost all forms of cancer, except for three. it is a significant problem, yet you do not see much attention to this issue and not much understanding that this is a medical problem that must have a medical solution because it is a public health challenge. host: a final question in about 30 seconds. what are the big questions that you have moving forward?
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guest: for us, the challenges are going to be how to come up with the next generation of treatments and how to improve the way we do diagnostics. you get diagnosis the on the level of observable symptoms. we began to really put some real details that these are circuit disorders. and how do we bring together our understanding of the brain, understanding the complexity of human behavior to be up to help people with these, located disorders in a way that is lasting and allows them to recover and function fully in this world? [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013] host: >> on the next washington journal the foreign-policy initiative discussing secretary of state john kerry's tenure so
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far in the overall foreign policy challenges that the obama administration faces. after that, the center for public integrity talking about financial disclosure requirements for state supreme court judges. then, a discussion about genetically modified foods with new york university professor mary ann nestle. it will also look for your reaction, as always, by phone, e-mail, and twitter. live every day at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> the white house has president obama and the first lady will go to south africa next week to pay their respects to the memory of the late nelson mandela. also on friday, former secretary of state hillary clinton talked about the former south african president's legacy. here is some of what she said. >> we meet on that day after the loss of a giant among us,
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someone who, by the power of his example, demonstrated that unequivocally how each of us can choose how we will respond to those in justice's and grievances, those sorrows and tragedy's that afflict all of humankind. nelson mandela will be remembered for many things. he will be, certainly, remembered, for no way he led his dignity, as extraordinary understanding , not just tough how to bring democracy and freedom to his beloved south africa, but how important it was that he first brought freedom to himself. as i spent time with him
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starting in 1992 and tell them just in the last year-and-a-half , i was always struck by the extraordinary depth of his self knowledge, of his awareness about how hard it is to live a life of integrity, of service, but to combine within oneself the contradictions that he lived with, a lawyer and a freedom fighter, a prisoner and a leader , man of anger and forgiveness has so captured the hearts of people not only in his
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own country, but as we are seeing with the outpouring of response to his death, people around the world. i only hope that as we both morning and celebrate the passing of this universally recognized and beloved figure, that we remember, he became that through an enormous amount of hard work on himself. this story has been told several times now in the coverage that i have watched as his passing about how he invited three of his prison guards to his inaugural festivities. i was there as a part of the american delegation put the inauguration, and i was there at the luncheon that was held back
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on the grounds of the president's house that had transitioned from the morning where i had breakfast with president de klerk to where i had lunch with president mandela . and as he looked out at the large crowd gathered, filled with dignitaries from everywhere, including people who had been part of the struggle itself against apartheid and who had supported the struggle, he made the point of thanking his jailers and pointing out that to come of all of the distinguished gi peace to word it -- vips who were there, he was most grateful that these men with whom he had exchanged words of recognition and acknowledgement of the other's humanity over the course of that long imprisonment could be there as well.
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>> in a few moments the head of the defense intelligence agency lt. gen. michael flynn on national security. in a little more than an hour we will riata washington journal special on the national institutes of health. now, the head of the defense intelligence agency, lt. gen. michael flynn con challenges facing the intelligence community kind of unlimited resources and cyber threats. his comments at the institute of world politics are a little more than an hour. [inaudible conversations] >> good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. my name is john. i am president of the institute. for those of you are new to the institute of world politics, i
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would like to just introduce us and our mission. we are independent graduate school on national security and international affairs. we specialize in teaching all of the different arts of statecraft by which we mean the various instruments of national power, military strategy, intelligence, counterintelligence, diplomacy, the many arts and public diplomacy and sought power such as culture of a policy, information policy, political action, and that sort of thing. economic strategy and now all of these different parts are integrated into overall national strategy. our philosophy is that if you study and master many of these seals which are almost never studied and integrate them together, you minimize the necessity of having to use force to defend our country, civilization, and its most vital interest. it is a great pleasure today to
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end have a very distinguished speaker for an event that we have been conducting now for 18 years, our pearl harbor day commemoration. we add add wp do this precisely to keep some historical memory and historical lessons a live, especially during a time in our culture where there has been a precipitous drop in the study of history and more people are mostly studying social history and no longer diplomatic military intellectual economic and political history. is a regrettable thing, and we, americans, tend to be a historical people as simply a cultural matter. very forward-looking people flooding to solve problems in the future. and so it is very worthwhile so that we don't repeat the mistakes of the past that we
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should be paying attention to some of the transforming it events that have taught us some great lessons and the surprise attack on pearl harbor is one of those events which helped propel the united states into a global will and which teaches us many, many lessons about intelligence, but vigilance, but national security prepared this. well, to help elucidate some of the lessons of the past we have a great friend of mine wp here today which in a general -- lt. gen. michael flynn. it one of america's foremost intelligence officers. he has been associated with different units of the u.s. army and most notably the 802nd airborne in earlier parts of his career he was deployed two granada and 80. later in his career to iraq in
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afghanistan. he has had an extraordinary array of senior intelligence appointments, including director of intelligence for the joint special operations command. the director of intelligence for the u.s. central command, the director of intelligence of the joint staff, the director of intelligence for the international security assistance force in afghanistan, which meant basically that he was in charge of the u.s. military intelligence in the afghan war. most recently he has served as -- he served as the assistant director of national intelligence for partner engagement. in 2012 he was nominated to be the 18th director of the defense intelligence agency. while he was -- just to put up a little bit of substance behind this remarkable resonate, general fled, while in afghanistan had come to the
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conclusion that we were concentrating more in our intelligence collection efforts on the finding of information about improvised explosive devices, which were the main killers of american troops. the problem was that this was being done, in his estimation, at the expense of understanding the local political cultural strategic conditions in the valleys of the villages and the tribes. and in the kind of counterinsurgency war that we were conducting which necessitated understanding relationships with those tribes developing intelligence sources with them, being able to find local political collaboration, safe haven for troops and so on and so forth, it was essential that we understand the human terrain, which is why a army
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developed and pioneered the so-called human to rain initiative and why -- and one would have thought that, perhaps, our civilian agencies might have been a little bit more active in the collection of what we call cultural intelligence. anyway, at general flynn was the pioneer in conceiving and implementing this copernican evolution in intelligence strategy in afghanistan, and it is the result of somebody who has not only had an incredibly active career, but some of the u.s. concentrated on higher education and educating himself. he is a man with three graduate degrees, including one from the u.s. naval war college, and i should add that we were proud to present him with an honorary degree here just a couple of years ago.
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i should not neglect to say, general flynn has been given many awards, including the defense superior service medal with three oakley's clusters, the legion of merit with an of leaf cluster, the brand star, the meritorious service medal and others that are not too numerous to mention. he is a great friend of this school, and we are honored that you could join us and the floor is yours. >> thank you. [applause] >> great. first, before i get into some formal remarks, i hopefully -- everyone got handed out one of these. it is that there are your see your you got it when you walked in. a pamphlet about the defense intelligence agency and other about who we are all we're doing a behalf of national security for this country. it will give you some idea about
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the direction of one of the, what i would call the big five agencies that we have that are every day right now at 24 hours a day, seven days a week from some 142 countries around the world, of approximately 17,000 people coming in now, doing the nation's business. we have some extra neri and talented men and women out there. i will talk a little bit about that. first, thank you very much. wanted thank you for that great in kind of interaction. wanted thank these two and a staff that is here at pets these things on. it is an important endeavor that we keep doing this. the history of world politics in your personal dedication tustin this annual lecture is a testament to the commitment to train in a generation of critical thinkers and the professionals in this from a recognized the value of studying history when confronting modern issues of national security and world politics. as early as 1932, there was a
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book called the great pacific war which begins with a surprise attack on pearl harbor. it was part of the curriculum of the united states naval war college, as john mentioned, an institute that a graduate degree from. in march of 1941 intelligence reports warned of the possibility of a pre-emptive attack on the u.s. fleet by japan. sources differ, but many insist that signals intelligence intercepted in late november november 1941 indicated japanese intentions. we now know that last minute descriptions of japanese diplomatic communications on december 6th 1941 resulted in a warning to the u.s. pacific commanders that was received too late. it was sent by commercial western union telegrams and sat i'm red indian rocks of the u.s. naval intelligence official in honolulu because it had not been marked urgent. amazing. in hindsight these events provided ample warning of the danger that lion.
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the lesson of pearl harbor is not about failure to collect intelligence but rather one of getting that intelligence into the hands of the people who need it, our decision makers. while the limiting factor on the intel as community leading up to pearl harbor was arguably its inefficiency and destructiveness and while the march of technology continuously enhances our ability to handle data, the advances that have helped failures lead to new challenges today which is part of what i will talk about where the intelligence community was previously limited by his technical ability to manage a relatively small volume of affirmation, is now challenged by its collective ability to filter, analyze, said the size, and share relevant intelligence from a vast universe of information. today with all of the data and reports at our fingertips it is critical that we pull together right information in the right way at the right time, and that is a tough thing to do, believe
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me. require steady discipline, which is exactly what the institute of world politics i believe is about. for the many students in here, many of whom are part of our military force, i know the army has a great here, and an area of the special operations forces officers here in the past. you do not realize it until you leave, the investment that our department is putting in you and really in some cases you don't even know it until a couple of years later. i would tell you, the other thing is it requires reliable tradecraft. and i know in some of the academic courses that you have it is about tradecraft. it is about statecraft. also committed requires a commitment to cultivate a sophisticated work force. a very important priority of mine in definitely an important aspect of what this institution does command decoding or future. it is the ability to implement full spectrum intelligence, being ready to use of the tools
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at our disposal to ensure that to the largest extent possible where able to prevent strategic surprise by providing this is an advantage to our leaders. we must begin looking at the war and thus, the emerging challenges and prepare our enterprise to answer questions not yet been asked. we are already encountering a new operational mire meant, one in which the east "-west balance of the world is being challenged , where war fighters are more likely to be deployed into the urban battle space then to the mountains, desert, and jumbles of conflicts past. the challenging global landscape is requiring all of us command in the defense intelligence agency to reexamine priorities and transform ourselves and our institutions for the future. given this rapidly changing security environment and reflecting on the past i would like to take the next few minutes to walk through some of the challenges that dia is focused on and now we are reshaping the defense
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intelligence enterprise to meet those needs. first of all, why change? and there are really two reasons why. first, resources are being constantly reduced right now. we are in an era of huge fiscal constraint. to, and the same time we have skyrocketing intelligence requirements. sequestration seems to be here to stay. we will continue to have to make tough decisions as a result. the operational environment has no sympathy for our fiscal plight and is more complex than ever. the middle east continues to command our attention, while we are signing up -- simultaneously rebalancing to age and refocusing on its threats and africa, all the while cyber presents a threat with far-reaching implications that is taller than a sedate. so why change? and there is relief for global trends that are recuring and really had been in caring cents
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post world war two. we will speak to to specifically, but those for our popular -- have to do the population, technology, resources, an economic trend. the world we live in is transforming an unprecedented rate. the intelligence community must be prepared for these new challenges. the nexus of power is shifting. given our global role in the world, developing countries require our utmost attention. threats are no longer relegated to nation states. not nation state actors have the potential to exert a disproportionate force via cyber and other weapons of mass destruction platforms. in terms of one of these megatrends, and i am going to just talk to, like i said, two of them, the first estimate population. as this craft builds up, it goes from 1800 to 2015 s. so it gives you a little bit of perspective back a couple of hundred years in texas 2015.
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and to put it into perspective of the discussion in place today, world war two and pearl harbor, 1950 was the first global census ever taken, first time that the world was never counted. 2010 was the second time. the way i would describe it is, the world is at a crossroads, definitely today and in the future. you see it is an expensive change really of the last 50, 60 years. in 2008 here to percent of the world's population became urbanized. by 2015 there will be -- it is estimated that there will be 10 billion people on the planet, over three times as many as was counted in 1950. in a very short amount of time and expense a root of this population. by 2015 there will be over 700 cities with 1 million more people and then. in 1800 there were only three. 1950, there were 74.
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today there are nearly 500. again, one of the things that is brought about this craft, you see this rise of all of this demographic shift and these increases in population. i think a lot of what we are seeing today in these challenges is really underlying societal sounds -- challenges around the world. trains such as these are creating new global dynamics that we do not yet understand. instead, today and in the future we need to look to help shape and influence behavior by trying to introit because maintaining forced presence globally has really proven to be too costly. we must also expand upon and create new partnerships with allies and friends around the world. defense intelligence agency has numerous bilateral and multilateral intelligence relationships, you know, defense department, ministers of defense, you know, around the world. we have them in their region of the world.
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we have the capability to continue to push that, and that is the guidance we're getting in our national security strategy and national military strategy, partnering and partnerships are critical to our on national security. intelligence must be ready for these new realities. the second megatrend that i want to just talk to you briefly about has to do with this connected populace. this is really important that we understand this. the hang people of today, they're growing up in -- they are young. it is really the millenniums are in this world. they don't wear watches. they tell time by ourself on. you know, i can go on and on about describing how regions confidence of the world have moved from no pair copper wire, which, you know, unless you are used to an old style town you would not know what i am talking about to for she and some cases 5g telecommunication networks around the world. the african continent as an example is about 47 percent of
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the global telecommunications market. never really had a nifty pair copper wire them was built into the infrastructure of this country years ago in order to build a telephone system. so communications in this interconnectedness' that we have is really changing the face of the planet. you add in the ubiquitous use of sulfites as commander of a global populous is connected in ways unimaginable clearly 100 years ago, probably to a degree even talk to five years ago. our new intelligence challenges finding the right needle in a skyscraper stack haystack of needles. i will say that again because it is important. this is a challenge that we face our new intelligence challenges finding the right middle in a skyscraper sized a stack of meals because of the volume of affirmation that we're able to of jordan our system today has
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no meaning unless we ruthlessly prioritize what is that we're trying discover, and knowledge is really we're trying to discover. finally, dia is training our analysts to shrink that haystack to the degree and we can to better support our policy makers in our war fighters. so briefly in this connected populous because i think this is an important aspect and dynamic and also stresses that global -- the population growth that we have seen over the past hundred years. believe that we do not yet know what having a worldwide network population means to national security and global stability. obviously we are clearly thinking about. our challenge is to remain at of this rapidly shifting and exponentially rising technology curve. unprecedented connectivity linking the world's people together creates both opportunities and challenges. in terms of opportunities come a
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vast array of accessible affirmation -- that is an opportunity that is out there that we have to take a advantage of. the possibility of ford's new partnerships with nontraditional partners. and all of the potential that global communications can bring. these opportunities are in a field of economic development, improve education, enabling new agricultural techniques were developing new energy resources. it challenges, however, are immense. the uncontrolled free flow of ideas that tests societies that are not yet ready to respond, those wild card or network pratt's such as the nontraditional threats posed by non nation state cyber efforts, these types of threats continued to test this on a daily basis. at think the world of cyber and everything out there in the media today for the generation of young people that are involved in getting an education today and where you may be coming you know, as i look in my
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career backwards 33 years, i look forward to the kind of things that i've experienced, but one can imagine, when i can imagine standing here today projecting myself 30 years ahead and try to think of all the changes that i have seen in many of the others that are in this room that had been around a little bit, the kinds of dynamics and we have seen changed. frankly, in the information world in just the last five or six years -- facebook only came on to a scene in 2005. today over half a billion people are connected via twitter. these are just some of the challenges that we are facing and what i believe is certainly the defense intelligence and intelligence in general has to remain an of that curve. so confronting tomorrow's challenges just as, you know, we reflect back on the past challenges that we face as we lead into a world war ii and the kinds of affirmation that was coming in and really no lack of
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technology at the time that created the inefficiency that cause some of the harm that occurred on seven december, but these megatrends are really creating new paradigms' every single day. intelligence has to be adaptive, we will be caught by surprise again. then megacity development is far outpacing nation state ability to provide basic resources and governance. so where there are nation states that have, you know, essentially get institutions, good governance, and some aspect of rule of law, not necessarily rule of law that we would attest to, but they have some control of their society, they are in relatively okay shape. the remainder of the world, which is most of it, is not. we have large swaths of the plant there in these < govern areas or regions or under governed reasons that don't have the institutions and the strength of our education system , the strength of our
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financial system and definitely what i believe is one of our national-security advantages which is our rule of law in this country. i think that those are important aspects that we need to keep in mind as we think about the challenges and we're likely to face the future. these are all really creating hotbeds of economic stagnation and political instability in what i have described as these under governor or less than the regions of the world. demographic challenges such as things such as youth bulges, gender imbalance, aging populations have the potential to spark widespread unrest and some of these regions, and that think we seesaw that in different parts of certainly the african continent and different parts of the middle east. so the implications for national security. based on this emerging operational environment of its intelligence and dia in the enterprise that dia is responsible for, we are rethinking how we approach this threat. as stated, we are facing a very
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complex array of threats and adversaries. our changing operational the environment demands new approaches, new geographical areas of emphasis, : north-south dynamic. he picked it up on a population slight, in the past three or really any east-west world. it was -- you know, it was the east, the former soviet union over the last 50, 60 years. now this shift over the next 50 years there really started back around 1990 camino, certainly into the last decade, the world of shifting to this north-south dynamic where the populations in these population centers and have been talking about, these megatrends are more in the southern hemisphere of the world . the eastern and western parts of the world by typically europe, the united states, russia to my china, and then when you begin to look at some of the more challenged parts of the world is really in the southern hemisphere of the world which is where we're seeing a lot of these challenges. i think that is why we see
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ourselves being drawn into places that are new, relatively new, locations where we are having to place certainly military forces and our intelligence system is definitely being challenged to understand new threats. so, as i said, are changing operational environment demands new approaches. urban terrain will continue to be the predominant war fighting internment, bringing with a unique set of challenges. those challenges to my belief, deal with what i call precision. you know, and the days of desert , mountain, or jumbo warfare you could be less precise kaj especially in terms of, you know, the application of military power. in the day and age there are red warfare -- and we definitely see this coming even in the last decade as we work, you know, operate in places like flu shell or missile will or baghdad or kandahar, jalal about, these
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were urban areas, generally urban areas. as we see more and more of the population moving to end of organization affect, precision of our capability is going to be key, and the other way that i would describe it is understanding, you know, understanding should be a principle of war, as i'm concerned like economy of force or mastermind stand in the operational environment, one of the principal lessons learned from the last decade of war that comes out of our chairman is directive volume one study of camino, lessons learned of the last decade, the number-one lesson is our failure to understand the operation on varmint which led to a mismatch in resources and capabilities that were applied to an operational varmint. so as we move into a different operational environment can this is one that is ready emerging, we have to have a better earned a standing, and then it will have to be precise and how we apply an instrument.
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i would say that it is beyond simply the military power. it is everything and we do. in terms of, you know, taking it back to dia and a new model for defense intelligence command today dia must find efficiencies and meet any threat environment. the last time dia face to these competing demands was in 1993 when the tennant general james clapper was the director, now serving as director of national intelligence preliminary a change in the seven organizations > on the inside the organization is likely to become less relevant. we do not want to be less relevant. our national security system cannot afford it. we cannot afford it. we are advocating a new model for defense intelligence to keep pace with a rapidly changing global environment. the core of this model is fusion and integration and leverage is innovative strategies to overcome fiscal constraints. so what is this integrated
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intelligence center construct? how might describe it is dia is implementing integrated centers car regional and functional centers to synchronize capabilities and eliminate redundancies the around our entire enterprise. integration of intelligence operations in the election without defense analysts in income mining capabilities along with collection management, targeting, science, and technology bring to bear significant capability and talent to forewarn an impending conflict. all of these types of skills and abilities and others, counterintelligence, human intelligence all bra underneath the construct of a center concept. the integrated intelligence center construct uniquely tied into our were fighting combat commands which is part of the defense intelligence enterprise providing full spectrum intelligence while synchronizing capabilities and eliminating redundancies. i will not stand appear until you that we will eliminate every redundancy, but that is one of
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the areas that we have to try to work toward common understanding who is doing what to whom. i will tell you, as a longtime intelligence officer, you meet the demands of your customers. if your customer is the commander of you answer those demands. if a customer's the secretary of defense of the president you answer that question. if someone else is answering it for their boss, so be it. if someone wants to call and redundant, so be it. as a world we live in. in dealing with the hearing now on the press that we face today and he sort of -- to keep us out of conflict, we want to stay in a military vernacular in a phase zero environment. i would tell you that fusion and integration will permeate everything that we do. collaboration coming information sharing, and transparency with an hour defense intelligence enterprise must become the norm. so there are really three priorities are components, and i talk a little bit about them in that pamphlet that we had have.
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and to do with operations, analysis, and trending. using analysis and collection, modernizing a analytic methods and tools, being innovative to maximize return on investment. and we absolutely have to do that and everything that we do. as much money as we have spent the last decade to build capabilities come in many cases money was spent in a stovepipe ways. as we look at the best tools that we have kamal we want to do is bring us to bear. we don't want to throw out everything and we learned to do. you want to take the good with us forward. also, new model for defense intelligence requires elevating your kid ability to innovate. one of the small steps we have taken his we have created an office of innovation and we have competition for small and large businesses in an open forum now on our website. answer that is basically, the innovation get away, open innovation their way which will lt. gen. michael flynn in early january. we just opened up with is called
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the. we put our requirements out there in the open tomorrow. we say, this will be looking for, and it allows open competition. reduces the turn for our investment from years to under really a couple of months. significantly it has changed the way we're able to adapt with technology. we must also think in the age supporting, and he had been the feel, what is out there on the footprint of the furthest to rise and a man out there. for dia it is our attache system we also must support a greater human intelligence presence forward in working with our national partners and then choosing that through analysis and collection, making sure that that is all done in a very prioritized and effective, as my way. we must reshape defense analysis as well, exploiting the unprecedented amount of data available to us with new tools,
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technologies to and databases that are definitely different just because of the technology that we have today. tools that i used in the -- in both the iraqi in afghanistan in complex, only a few years ago, outdated already. we have new technology that is now giving is even better insight in being able to tag data, to sift through, you know, the sand, so to speak, to find that golden nugget. remise champion what i would call and the training and education model, invest in training and education, maximize the agility across our entire enterprise. again, that is an enterprise, the defense intelligence agency headquarters in our national capitol region footprint which is significant, all of the joint intelligence operations centers and the combat command and then all of the service intelligence centers, the national ground intelligence center the blocks to the army, marine corps, the u.s. marines, the air force and
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elan i write every year. it belongs to the navy. that is all part of our enterprise. we have to ensure that we are investing in them, basically make the right investments and these really highly in diligence offices of we have which is a significant investment. we don't want to leave a decade of war with all this experience that we have in and stop investing particularly in the young workforce that we have, sort of what i would call the below 40 workforce that we have because prior to september 11th we were generally about 60, close to 70% from the age of 40 over sphere of the last decade we have shifted cannot completely, but more than 50 percent under the age of 40. over six dozen civilians deployed. so dia civilians, over 6,000 employed gnostic aid to iraq, afghanistan, and elsewhere in
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support of operation enduring freedom. in order to succeed, we must change to me to march towards. to provide the best knowledge available to support our national security decision makers and staff. we have to counter what appears to be never-ending threats to our way of life that drags, and that is really what drives our work force every single day. if we are to not have another program or september 11th we must move toward a far greater integrated intelligence community, one focused on one thing, protecting our nation. so with that, what i would just, you know, finished with -- and it is really ." i would just say that we cannot afford as another commission or committee such as the joint committee on the investigation of the pro harbor attack in 1946 and they stated, and i will quote, and we greater imagination and a keener awareness of the significance of the intelligence that existed in
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may it is proper to suggest that someone should have concluded the robber was unlikely point of japanese attack. we cannot afford to let that imagination and will we deal with today. with that, john, and the staff of 9wp to my want to take -- say thank you for allowing me is the opportunity to present some thoughts on the direction we're taking over in dia. i look forward to any questions. thank you. [applause] >> yes, sir. i will go right here. >> thank you very much. it seems as we look back in time that we sometimes did not have an understanding, not only of our adversaries, but also hard teammates that came from a different culture. do you think this explosion of media connections is going to help us to bridge that said that we can better understand what
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makes our friends and our adversaries take so that we understand them of little bit better than we used to? >> one comment that is a great question because, you know, there is -- today, you know, whenever it was, that show. it used to be in the 60's are 70's, 64 does not question. there are a lot of $64,000 questions a day. that is one of them. now bill we view them medium of media in the world today. and, you know, is it just it? the intelligence community wants to validate the sources of information that we have in order to make it -- to ensure that it is believable, reliable, irrelevant. and so what we have to do is come to grips with this media that has this enormous amount of media and it. the number of videos that are a bloated, and videos that are
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being presented from the battlefield of syria, as an example, media and is presenting activity in terrier square, mira is presenting activity in benghazi or tripoli on molly. so we have to look at that. we're going to have to develop -- inside the old attack and defend manuals that i grew up with teaching really in the 80's where we had a laundry list of in the case for what the indicators or of an attack, the indicators of the defense. there are new sets of indicators that are actually coming and as far faster because of the media after. we are going to have to develop these new indicators for warning and then the strategic warning and tactical warning can be a matter of hours in some cases because of the speedy, you know,
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what people describe as the velocity of the information environment every face. and so are their trusted sources? are there better media that are more reliable in the kinds of reporting that they do? because at the same time, you know, you are bombarded by the information. so it gets back to, i guess, when i was a young officer, you know, my commanders return to me in the upcoming summit with the enemy is. and that is not really good guidance. it is -- i am responsibility to understand what it is that we're trying to do. and i think that the give-and-take these days, and i think that the smart commanders that i know, the battalion brigade on the kind they are having more of a dialogue these days with their intelligence professionals, particularly analysts. i have seen a lot of young analysts out there who have been very engaging with brigade commanders, colonels, generals,
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on up to a joint task force commanders because it has to be a give-and-take. what you're trying to pull out, sometimes a commander does not know. sometimes the secretary of defense, the president, they're not really sure what it is that they need. answer you have to enable this dialogue to polenta push the kind of information that is available and get to be more precise in the answers that we are providing. a more precision we can have in our, i would call our prurient those requirements the more precisely can be interacting avast capability that we have against the right target. so -- >> i insist that the questioners identify themselves. i want to present admiral dave rogers to was the one that asked the first question. >> yes sir. the institute of health politics . our ability to address the north-south challenge is
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predicated on ensuring american leaders and the unity of the western alliance. you have not addressed to much the challenges to the western alliance and many from russia and china, which are not in the south. would you mind coming to? >> i will come into a little bit. i mean, some of these are clearly in a policy been. and so i want to make sure that what i do is sort of staying in where i think the intelligence challenges lie. but i would just say that as we go forward, the kinds of challenges that we, the united states, are going to face some very similar to what the chinese are facing, what the russians are facing, that sort of the normal, the bake nation's states camino, the sort of big players
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on the world stage, and i would bring into that even, you know, the european union nations. and it challenges are really coming down to three things. and they all have to do with access, access to food, water, and energy. and i think that those three, there's three things to mothers three capabilities, those three atoms for this world that is growing and as we move to being more of an urbanized, global society, i mean, we take for granted. you look around and our country and you take for granted when you turn on the water faucet, the light, you have of that. in some of these places where they don't have that kind of structure, those kind of institutions that ensure you have power an electric, ensure you have clean air and water, those are the kinds of things that those types of nations are
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going to have to face together. and my hope and my belief is that we need to face them as a coherent group of leaders instead of trying to challenge each other. we have to actually contribute to the greater good, and i think that is probably fair to say that any of our -- any leader would say it that is right. how does intelligence support the? intelligence supports it and a lot of ways because of we are trying to understand where those things are, the challenges with those types of resources are, the kinds of challenges that we are likely to face if we have to go and get the resources are projected resources around the world, not for the united states or russia or china, but from the world to be allowed to apply those to, frankly, a global landscape that is rapidly changing.
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other questions? weigh in the back to the end lady. [inaudible question] he spoke earlier about staying relevant. that policy majors focusing on the short term threats in the here and now, there any resources going to make german long-term threats? a bunch of resources are not. how does the dia plan for long-term security? >> that is a great question. agate and a lot. you know, especially from folks the field because they are -- when i say folks in the field, forces in the field, as a joint task forces, special operations forces, component demands underneath our command command's command those are combat commands, the four were based operations and capabilities and we have. they tend to live in a year now, the very short term because there dealing with the operational environment as it is
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, reality as it yesterday. so we camino, people tend to look back in the national capitol region and say, if we're going to do that than you guys ought to do six months and now or you're not. we work very closely with our national intelligence system camino, but the national capabilities and the organizations like the central intelligence agency and definitely do with the director of national intelligence to their national intelligence managers firmer when anam's. particular region or a particular function. those conversations and discussions and assessments are done fairly routinely and time in, you know, documents that we would call national intelligence estimates, and there are other national estimates that i've done on things like water, things like, you know, weapons of mass destruction, things like developing economies.
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there are long-term projects and assessments that are done. and frankly, they are done by both defense because we will look at defense issues, long term kirk -- let's just say defense investments by some of the -- you know, some other regional partners and round the world, how much they are investing and the next five, ten years. same thing on our side. we will do that kind of assessing as an example of something that we would do, and we will participate, certainly in other assessments that taking place in definitely have a direct impact on the fence. good question, but it gets back to what i said. if, you know, something happens in human or something happens in the secretary of defense or an assistant secretary because the work with all kinds of customers says to make colleges happened? any to know because i'm getting ready to go into any interagency process camino, on capitol hill.
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i need some answers. as a year and now i answered. they're not going to go to send come to get that answer because they turn to us. we have to also maintain a very current intelligence capability, and we do that -- actually, the center constructs gives us enormous flexibility to do that. we also do that through their joint staff. the joint staff j2. joyce-j to also is a component of really staying in a year now. really on behalf of the chairman of the joint chiefs. and that is -- if no one is a real part of the joint staff, for those of the letter in the military or have any aspiration, it is probably -- the way i used to joke about it, the best and allied about it was my parking spot. the job itself is just ruthless. i look back at assignments. it is probably one of the best assignments than ever had because it is still alive.
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you are really at the top of the game in terms of intelligence support to war fighters. great question. yes, ma'am. >> thank you very much for the presentation. a sissy director of foreign aid for education. specifically, given the just coming u.s. government fiscal resources start to address the philosophy of affirmation at the same time that the volume on the velocity of the information to be able to come out with timely analysis to be able to answer the question. >> you know, give it my personal -- my personal de, right from the day -- you know, we have an
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intelligence mission and dia is a big business. you know, it is a global corporation, probably mid-size in terms of, you know, scale and budget and things like that. we have to -- i have responsibility to ensure that the folks there during the intelligence missions have the resources that they need to do their intelligence mission. now, i say that a bit tongue in cheek because resources are finite and their prioritized. not everyone is going to give everything at once. so i have to prioritize the intelligence mission. when i say i commend it is a collective sense because they're being driven from the white house is secretary, the undersecretary, assistant secretary level, national intelligence director on down to our combat command.
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so everything sort of drive south we prioritize. it really does start with the president, and the president sets a very clear priorities for the intelligence nation's intelligence system. given that commando raid in shape the business environment, the business side of what we're doing? and like to think of agility, flexibility, speed, relevancy as terms to shape an organization. and as i highlighted coming you know, three perris at we are involved in, prior to us in our operations which is really art collection capabilities, our intelligence, human intelligence , pirates rising our analytic capabilities because at the end of the day what does dia do? we provide knowledge to support decision making. so we have to modernize analysis and defense analysis because exactly what he said, the velocity of affirmation, we cannot stick to the ways that we
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used to, you know, what we used to have in the past, conventional, traditional training and in some cases even tools that we have. we have to change those. those are business decisions. i will tell you that for less remain a couple of big ones. we made big decisions in our information technology. remain big decisions that are modernizing, what i call modernizing analysis, and we will make other investment decisions in the world of science and technology because that is a big component of what we do. we are a huge, you know, like a lab and a think tank all rolled into one. we have access to a wide range of capabilities from the research organization. so we have to make smart business decisions that are -- you know, the take the dollars we are given and use them as wisely as we can.
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and then ensure that we're prioritizing exactly what we're being driven to prioritized by our leaders. again, that, i believe, has been very clear. the town is that we face is that as clear as that can be, you know, something else is going to happen around the world and suddenly takes you by surprise. and when you think back to pearl harbor or september 11th, was it an existential threat to the country? now, the underlying, underpinnings of why those occurred could be existential. the national leaders have to make decisions about how far we go when we are, in fact, surprised the view of the people of the individuals making as decisions the to surprise us. i think that is really, you know, for those that are in --
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get paid the big bucks, so to speak, to make this tough decisions, the best intelligence that we can. the environment we are in today, we have to a rift asleep prioritize our resources to deal to accomplish that mission. >> thank you for your service and for your and your agency's commitment to national defense. it is a time of hope, but outside the beltway at least, there are a lot of concerns about how well the various parts of the u.s. government by doing in coping with the challenges that we face. in that regard, reporting back to your mention, critical thinking, tradecraft, the need to understand, would like to ask two questions. firstly, you did not mention the challenge of islam. i would like, if you could clarify please, how you and to train your analysts to use critical thinking about islam when it appears that the defense
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department or the pentagon is afraid to have people who take the very damn way i view of some muslims p.m. in what is on is about to lecture to your staff. or when it seems that inside the beltway is harder to tell whether people consider what the dollar hassan did was terrorism or workplace violence. so how do you cope with trying to understand and anticipate how some people may use some parts of islam to justify terrorist acts against this. number two, our society faces a lot of strains. how do you foresee quarantining or preventing the next president manning? in other words, the cia threat.
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>> those are good questions. [laughter] that mr. with the second one. that is relatively short answer. i don't think that we can stop insider threat. a determined, cunning, agile, you know, savvy individual who wants to get inside our system, said the speak, you know, you can't close all the locks and gates and doors. there is always going to be that threat. will we have to do is put, you know, disciplined processes in place, you know. many times when you look at what has happened, manning, snowdon, you know, the right things in
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place in the answer generally is yes. was there people that were doing the right things, you know, maybe not.
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facing and and to come to grips and face the reality of what it is that is happening within a social structure. you know, and, you know, to talk about sort of islamism or christianity or jew dayism, or whatever it is. there are, you know, and i have been schooled on this by friends who are of the islamic faith. willing to put themselves and lives and children and others at risk, you know, for onlystream belief they have. it's in the news today both in
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yemen and iraq in the last 24 hours. more bombs went off killing -- soil and water assessment tools of people that are just throughout doing the business for the day. they're trying to make a living. those are extremist elements inside of a society. and those extremist elements are part of, i would argue, mo elements of our society doesn't make any difference what there religious intkd. we have to be -- we have to, you know, understand that. we have to understand what these churls that believes these believes we don't necessarily, you know, as catholic do i understand it at all? i have tried. day well somebody a fundamental i. somebody a strong bailiff in their religion. i have a strong belief in my
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religion. it doesn't mean i'm going an extreme and do something violent that's what we have to deal with. we have to deal with the elements in whatever walk of life that will turn to violence and challenge not only societies that can't take care of themselves, but also us in our way of life. i think that's a difficult challenge that we're facing. i think as we look around the world and see societies and the underpinnings whey describe in some there's a sense of hopelessness. that's where we have to understand that. we have to decide whether we're going do anything about it or not. some cases question some case we can't. what we would like to do is help other nations and other regions of the world, certainly to be able to help themselves. that's what a global leader should do. i think that's what we try do all the time.
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as i see the military, with the military has been involved in over the years. that's with we try to do. it doesn't make any difference what their intkd. other questions? let me go income the back. yes, sir. [inaudible] thank you for your talk, general. my question piggybooking on the last question. the revelations recently the past couple of months made by snowden as far as the nsa is concerned. have they affected the dia and your ability. your agency's ability to function as usual prior to the revelations? i don't know if there is anybody that worked at nsa. it's an extraordinary capability. a national capability for our country's national security. the work force and men and women up here are some of the most
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talented people we have in the intelligence community today. so, you know, they are challenged today because of this incredible outpouring of attention they don't frankly deserve it. the work force doesn't deserve it. they are -- and in all the while that all of this stuff is going on in the news today, they're up there today 24/7. i wouldn't just say up there but global work force on the battle needle afghanistan and many other part of the world working 24/7 to protect our national security. national security agency is a national treasure. now to answer your question, has it affected us? absolutely. will it affect us in the future? absolutely. is what the --
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the tragedy of megaproportions? absolutely. it's being dealt with in the right channel and, you know, there's this sort of stage. we have to look at all the way question mitigate the impact of what is some of those affects are. whether it's a reduction of reporting or access to information. we're working through all that have. i will tell you that, you know, the maturity of your intelligence community is very, very high. it's a high level of maturity. as a daily conversation that is going ton make sure that we mitigate any of the impact. because we still have a national security mission we have to adhere to. right here and the last question. [inaudible] retired from state department. do you have any -- that need to train on all churl issues? what you have brought about the
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younger work force fdia what was brought up here with your need to defense -- [inaudible] to quickly anded adequately bring back information to you to have the necessary bandwidth of their communications. is there any light at the end of the tunnel of the budgetary process. is there at anybody at congress that is listening? [laughter] >> how do i take the fifth here? [laughter] , you know, i mean, i don't want to -- i'm not going to disparage anybody. there's a we're facing, i believe, you know, i've been doing this for 33 years, you know, and i trust my judgment and i trust my intingt. what i believe is we're getting incredibly difficult time but not in a time where collapse or
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-- in my country it's strong. strategic advantages in a couple of areas. one rule of law. there's no country in the world that has a rule of law that we have. we're challenged because of the magnitude of the number of events around the world today. we are still doing a pretty good job of keeping things at bay. and i think the third and maybe a bit sell fish is our defense capability. i think it's a national strategic advantage. our military, despite about what you hear about the army is facing or the navy or air force. those are true. but we're still the best in the
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world. we are the most capable. that provides this country enormous advantage. when other countries look at us and the united, you know, we need to remind ourselves to be exactly what is no our dna. to be a little bit humble about our strategic advantage as a world power and global leader. and not be seen as, you know, we're better than you. we have to be seen as a global leader around the world. in fact, i know we are. because of the conversation i have. i say all of that because i think that it is a dialogue. you know, it's not just a dialogue one way. it's a dialogue from dia the defense department to congress from congress back to dia. from us the national level. the dni. we have to have -- we do. we have a great conversation going on all the time. and we have to make the
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decisions about capabilities. and not everything -- it's not a fair world. we're going end up with what we need. i think it's probably -- i believe that's the right thing to do. you can't -- these days especially as we go the next couple of years. that trend typically happens as we come out of global conflicts. worldworld war i, ii, korea, vietnam, the end of the -- here we are again ?il war but transitioning out of that. and i just finished with what i think john said upfront. what we have to be able to do is help our decision makers make the best decisions they can with the best information we can provide them to stay out of conflict. to stay in this sort of
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precrisis or sort of a peaceful world. and the world is generally not that. it's not the reality. what we don't want to do is we don't want to move ourselves to where we reduce our leader's options. we increase the cost to our nations, you know, purse or wallet, and we seriously increase the risk to our country. that to me is what we want to avoid. with that, i want to say, again, thank you john for inviting. i i hope i shared a few things with you. thank you. [applause] [applause] after being out of session friday, members of both chambers of congress return on monday for legislation work. to hear about what is head next week. we spoke with a capitol hill reporter.
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ginger is a congressional report are for "politico." thank you for coming on with us today. >> busy days ahead next week in congress as members get ready to wind up the year. the house is expected to gavel out friday 13th. what is the list on items they hope finish ?up. >> one of the biggest things likely to come next week is a possible deal on the budget. patty murray and paul ryan amere to be nearing some type of agreement on setting spending levels for the next year and maybe even the year after that. dealing with sequester as well as other revenue increases that aren't new taxes. con for instance report come out the next week.
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right now that's being included in the bucket deal. he's pressing very hard for it to be. or in a separate piece of legislation. speaker boehner left the door open. he would be open to having another extension. at this point they haven't figured out how they get it done or if it will get down. >> what happens if they can't reach a budget agreement before the break? >> there's no real repurr indication immediately. as well as leadership and maybe even the white house. >> we know they have been working on the farm bill. can we expect to see both on
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that next week? >> it will be unlikely to see that. they are trying to come back together. it could reach a deal next week. it's like a link between the farm bill and the budget committee conference committees. trying to get something done. but a deal is going to take a long of bringing people together. a lot of working to try to find the votes necessary to pass it. and whether or not they vote on it next week is unclear. >> just before the thanksgiving break, the senate was working on the defense authorization bill. how are those negotiations going? >> it cape to an abrupt stop. they thought they were going vote on that. they did not. they announced on monday they'll readdress the status of the legislation. whether or not they can bring it for a vote. it doesn't seem like it's going to happen before they leave for christmas break. could drag to the new year. but it is something they are still negotiating in the senate on both sides trying to get a vote on. >> so with the filibuster role now changed because of the nuclear option. what judicial nominations could we expect to see in the senate
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before the holiday break? >> there are three nominee to the d.c. circuit court. one of the most powerful court in the country. it deals with dispute between the executive and legislative branch. three of the nominees expected to move through the senate next week senate leadership harry reid said he's going bring the four votes and now the third is a little bit change and don't require 60 votes. ginger is congressional reporter for "politico." thank you for joining us. >> thank you for having me. if a few moments the washington journal essential special on the national institute of health.
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things escalade so quickly. just all that can -- it seems to loving can just turn and slip and be so out of control. this is one of those days. and it ended with adam -- [inaudible] on top of all the other pressures. she just held the gun. and he came out with a hot gun and tried to --
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as i describe in the book. >> the return home is only half the story. david follows the man of the u.s. army second battalion 16th infantry. sunday night at 8:00 on c-span's q & a. over the next two and a half hours we focus on the mission and role of national institute of health. it's medical research priorities. and how the agency has been affected by budget cuts. we'll begin with nih director dr. francis colins inspect a half hour dr. anthony head of the institute of allergy and infect use diseases. after that dr. erick green director of the human genome research institute. in an hour and a half we talk with the head of the national cancer institute. followed by dr. thomas who heads the national institute of mental
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health. glias looked just outside of washington, d.c.> it comprises 27 different research centers. it's work over the years credited with new breakthrough in the study of medical science as well as mental health. and this morning on c-span's "washington journal" we want to focus on the work of nih and focus give onyou more opportunity toat learn more about the people the behind the agency.t the pe including dr. francis colins. a we appreciate you being with us on c-span.we appciate it's wonderful to be part of washington journal with the live video cast. hington journal." with basic begin questions. what is the mission, the goal of nih? the largeste supporter of biomedical research in the world. basicssion is to do
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science to understand how life works at the most detailed level and to apply that in terms of coming up with new insights that will prevent and treat disease. support tens of thousands of grants across the country, conducted by our world's most cutting-edge scientists in the u.s. who are working on things from cancer to hiv, two aides. you name it -- to aids. you name it. let's learn more about the history. your roots date back to the late of thebut you are part department of health and human services. what is your budget and how many people work for nih? guest: it is about $29 billion. the number of people who work
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about on the campus is 17,000. most of our work is done by the grants that we give to universities and institutions all over the country. not getur money does spent in bethesda, but gets spent in those great universities where you are hearing every day about medical breakthroughs. that is because nih supported the work. how long have you been at nih? guest: 20 years ago is when i got here. we were working on the human genome project. people were skeptical on whether it would work or not. i had the privilege to lead that remarkable team. delivered on the promise of the human genome. there is a profound implication on how we understand ourselves
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and for medical practice. i stayed on with them for another five years and got called back to serve as the nih director for years ago. host: what makes a good medical researcher? guest: curiosity. a willingness to take risks. to tap out approaches into the brains of other people and not work in isolation and a compelling desire to help people. that is why our scientists do what they do. long hours forrk much less income than they could achieve in other sectors. they are determined to make a difference to the world. you: can explain on how work with similar agencies around the world? caller: i will be in a meeting with the head of organizations.
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i serve as the chair of that group and we will share our experiences and develop new collaborations to make sure we are making the most of those opportunities. host: a-day make sure there are no silos? -- how do you make sure there are no silos? scion was -- science itself does not work well in silos. you want to understand biology, you need to bring engineering and physics, ofmistry, to bear on many the problems that are most challenging right now. those knock down the silos built those. internatiolly, ex are there has never been a time f such promise.
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motivated touch work together. one thing that nih stands up for and will lead in every way we can is open access. we generate data and it should be available for anyone with a bright idea. host: let's talk about funding and the impact of sequestration. this shows the impact moving from 2008 where research dollars were expected to go and the impact of sequestration. how has that impacted what nih is or will be doing in the year ahead? caller: we have never seen a more exciting time for science, but this is a historically difficult moment in terms of support of that science. agobegan about 10 years when the budget for the national institutes of health went flat and inflation, working at about three percent per year, has been
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eating away at purchasing power. on top of that, on march 27, when sequestration hit us, we lost $1.5 billion that would have gone to research on a wide variety of areas that i think the public really cares about. that money disappeared. that means we are down about 25% in purchasing power for research over what we had 10 years ago. the combination of what has been happening plus sequester -- that has serious consequences. if you are an investigator in a university seeking to pursue a bold idea about cancer or diabetes or alzheimer's disease, honey get funded by the nih? you write a grant, you put your funded by you get hunte the nih? grant, you put your best idea on it, we make a priority decision and we try to find the best grant.
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we have been able to fund about a third. because of the deterioration in resources, we're down to the point where after sequester, only about 15% of those grants get funded. that is frustrating. many of them are getting demoralized and even discouraged enough to give up or think about moving to another country where things are more encouraging. this is a serious problem. this wakes me up at night. are we at risk at losing this generation of scientists? this is not like use spigot you turn on and off at will. if we lose these scientists, they will not come back when things get at her. -- things will not get better. we're talking about the department of health and human services, its budget come in the research going on by medical professionals at nih.
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also want towe talk about the peer research that takes place in all 50 states in colleges and universities. how does that work and how do you identify where you funnel that money? guest: many of the guests that -- many of the grants that we support are sent in by who think they have a great idea. unfortunately, six out of seven are going to be turned away. we are in such a tough spot. we try to identify areas where science is really right for further exploration. for a out a notice request for application because nih is interested in seeing more research on a vaccine for aids because we think there is an opportunity here.
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that is how we steer the ship. all of this depends upon the talents of the scientists out there to be bold and be innovative. dr. francis collins is the director of nih. in a recent "wall street hasnal" piece, cancer american directly or indirectly. where are we in cancer research? what are the big hurdles? that is one of the areas of greatest excitement and promise right now. we are enormously excited about the way in which the technology is being able to look at
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individual cancers. it has put us in a position of being able to read out what is driving a cancer in each individual. it is going to be different depending on which person is being analyzed. pathways thate are involved in taking a good sell down a road to becoming a malignant. drugs are being developed that target those pathways in a precise way as opposed to a chemotherapy approach which is much more carpet bombing. this is smart bombing. this is precision medicine for cancer. it is very exciting. it is transformational. ust: samantha is joining from rockville, maryland. good morning.
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thank you so much for coming on and agreeing to talk to all us about the importance of nih. i am an early career scientist myself. i just received my phd from the university of the miscellanea. -- of pennsylvania. i was watching many of my friends in the graduate program rapidly wrap up their phd's and stop experiments they were working on in order to move fo rward with the way grants were being lost from different labs. andft the area of research am now pursuing a career in science policy. i am working with a public education advocacy group in the district. i was woin


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